Abstract: The aim of this study is to identify the attributes that are perceived by consumers to a brand of footwear and women’s accessories c as part of the organizational strategy of building its identity in the light of the communication efforts. For the study, Arezzo, quantitative descriptive cross-sectional survey with questionnaire drawn from the studies of Aaker (1997) and of Strehlau et al. (2013). The results indicate that the attributes of the objects evoke the brand its various meanings, which the consumer takes for you. In this sense, the identity of the consumer becomes confused with the identity of the well.
Keywords: Brand Meaning; identity and brand image; meanings of consumption; brand attributes; organizational strategy.
Currently, there are varied options of fashion-related brands, because they consider different social groups, with their individual and collective needs and desires being built as the personal daily life changes. The so-called fashion market consists of clothes, shoes, jewelry, sunglasses and accessories such as belts and handbags.
Fashion is one of the market sectors that present higher growth as a country and enriched consumers jump social track not being different in Brazil. According to the Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics (IBGE), the amount spent on sets per month doubles every step up the social ladder. In class D, that leaves only 40 R$ monthly for clothing and accessories; in class C, on average, 97 R$; in class B, R$ 202; and in the class, R$ 455.
Often, these assets are acquired to give meaning to a particular event or experience. For Belk (1988), consumption is more than simple satisfaction of a need; is a supplier of meaning to life.
Commercially, the organizations have been taken to engage strong effort for the development of a proper identity for its brands, in order to generate meaning, products are goods or services. The identity is one of the most important assets of the company (Brown et al., 2006; Wheeler et Richey, 2010; Abdullah et al., 2013) and can turn the image perceived by consumers (Brown et al., 2006; Danes, 2010).
In turn, the consumer has been the target of commercial stimuli in the form of advertising, junk mail or celebrity gossip magazines (Easey, 2009). Is the submitted, according to the author, to a complex set of messages and media in an increasingly competitive environment, when compared with the consumption of the past.
Messages are broadcast to create meaning for consumers by facilitating the sale by meeting the expectations of who consumes. As Douglas et Isherwood (2004), the individual uses the consumption to say something about yourself, i.e. marketing efforts such as advertising or merchandising have been developed for the consumer to identify himself with the advertised product. In reverse logic, advertising writers incorporate information about the needs of the given thread ID, in the creation of content that can generate these people the feeling of identification with a specific circumstance.
These marketing efforts have led consumers to adopt different identities and express them through products. For McCracken (2003), the identity of the individual is merging with what the well-meaning, and meanings assigned to the right are inserted by marketing actions that capture the meanings of the world (such as advertising) and the transfer to the object.
In this context, the goal is to identify how consumers perceive the Arezzo, women brand shoes and fashion accessories, in the construction of identity in the light of the efforts of communication provided. Based on tag attributes identified by Aaker (1997) and by Strehlau et al. (2013), the study brings to discuss consumer relations little observed in analyses of the area, while establishing a dialogue between the possibilities of development and construction of identity for brands of footwear and women’s accessories as a way to meet the expectations of social identification of consumers.
Are presented concepts about consumer behavior sets that help the understanding of the construction of identity and the importance of fashion as end element of everyday life.
In any country the fashion industry grows as much as in Brazil. According to the Exame (2014), the Research Institute Euromonitor released that the revenues in this sector has quadrupled in the past 10 years, reaching R$ 140 billion in 2013. The same subject showed that Brazil is already the eighth position among the world’s largest billing, flanking the mighty Italy with its brands Armani and Gucci.
Within its social range, the current consumer is more sophisticated and demanding than the past, (Apejoye, 2013). It’s not enough that the advertiser claims that your product is better than the competition. To several authors (Brown et al., 2006; Clark et al., 2009; French et Smith, 2013), communication (especially the tools of propaganda, advertising and merchandising) must provide consumers with objective and subjective reasons for buying a particular product. The existence of mass communication tools on the market, such as ads or commercials, intend to involve consumers in the same way as fashion-specific tools, such as fashion shows and showcases. This type of communication usually takes place by means of campaigns, second Sant’Anna et al. (2009), are a set of different advertising media tools that, together, meet specific goals.
At the same time, creating a strong brand can facilitate obtaining success in competitive environments, such as the sets. For Easey (2009), in any sector that effort is more important than in the fashion market, which is highly competitive and saturated, with very similar products vying for the consumer’s attention. For Embacher (1999), developed for the communication area in view of the significant changes of the behavior of the contemporary man, whose concern with the esteem of his ego is stronger than the expression of his social status. In turn, Lipovetsky (1989) highlights the value that the brands have earned over time by investing in communication, mainly advertising, garnering a personality in the minds of consumers and not only performance and quality information. Communication, for the author, changed, with investments in a custom style humanizing the brand. Suggests that as well as fashion the way people look, makes communication customizes the tag.
Identity Crises occur with modern man and get on the abundance of choices that people have available. An effect of the current times, expanded communication obtained on the internet, is the difficulty in choosing, whether in reading, leisure, shopping or other style of life of the people, according to Laisawat et al. (2012). The authors believe that the great spread of social information, people alter their behavior so constantly that make it difficult to choose just one identity for you. The personalities are going to be modifying as she deepens in certain relationship means, and what is adequate today may not be tomorrow. Thus, signs as cars, leisure clubs and fashion can change constantly and earning amounts differ depending on the time of the person in your group. For Embacher (1999), instead of assigning the individual an identity, the current social arrangements allow the choice of a way of life that is more enjoyable. The author suggests the occurrence of a paradox, since on the one hand permits individual expression and, on the other, there is the emergence of fear to sustain the autonomy of "I" chosen. Defends Ibrahim (2011) that fashion shows a tool for the modern man, by which a "I" fragmentary is unified and looks a certain identity.
Caldas (2004) complements the idea stating that the current man is the product of a consumer society. The goods it consumes, the Services uses and habits that develops its Constitution participate be. Already Morace (2009) States that the consumption of a product responds, often subjective needs of a person, like cultivating a lifestyle or expressing social status due to the value of their holdings. Ibrahim (2011) says that the consumer acquires only a good or a service, that is bought and consumed to meet their basic needs, but rather a set of symbols, signs and meanings that are implicit in the product. And claims that companies are increasingly assigning value to the products, with the goal of becoming different from their competitors. To Morace (2009), fashion is communication, an action articulator of senses that conversation with benchmarks like the desire and its relationship to the process of identity formation. In the view of Godarte (2010), the consumer interest in the imaginary and symbolic universe. She is, to the author, the link between the worlds of production and consumption.
To Aaker (1996), identity is the set of bindings that give meaning, significance and purpose the given tag, peculiar characteristics and non-transferable. She represents what the brand intends to accomplish and implies a promise made to the customers of the organization. Keller (2008) complete saying that the purpose of the identity is to give the brand a structure of which must be in the minds of consumers. For Danes et al. (2010), the image of the brand is a mental construct that the audience way based on their experiences and associations with it. This construction occurs due to managerial efforts of the Organization in developing a brand identity. Rindell et Strandvik (2010) agrees stating that it is the market that builds brand image that, in turn, results of communication actions carried out by the organization.
The associations of brand identity to the product occur due to its performance and market acceptance, usually communicated through a value proposition. Composed of functional and emotional benefits, human capital and self-expression (Aaker, 1996; Brown et al., 2006; Scharf, 2012; Abdullah, 2013), typically a value proposition is the aspect of brand identity closer to the consumer. Already the Organization related associations relate to their attributes and not to its products (Aaker, 1996). For Bengtsson et al. (2010), these two complement each other, since the organizational attributes work as sponsors of the proper performance of the product and the brand.
The construction of the image of a brand requires the interpretation of attributes by consumers (Kotler et Keller, 2006). In the process of decoding the recipient contributes to the final result, in which a part of building the brand image does not depend on the stimulus held by the company, but the process of conceptualization of who receives it. The result is the difference between the identity of the brand tries to pass to the market and the image perceived by consumers.
The concept of fashion brands can be defined in two ways: with the approach of Kapferer (1992), which sees it as an entity with an identity, or with the understanding Aaker (1997), which sees with a personality. Despite the similarities between the approaches, as for Kapferer the identity of a mark must be understood through the six socio-cultural dimensions, Aaker assigns a personality similar to humans. Therefore, the approach of Kapferer’s sociological while Aaker is psychological. This study works with understanding of Aaker, because it adopts large social contexts, with meaning and socio-economic relevance.
Within this understanding, the symbolic use of the mark is possible because consumers attach to trademarks some traits of human personality (Aaker, 1997). The organization uses of endow the brand strategies of personality traits to anthropomorphizing, personification or creating an imaginary user (Apejoye, 2013).
In studies of the human personality, there is consensus among researchers about the concept proposed by Allport, in 1961, that personality is a dynamic and organized set of characteristics for a person. For Strehlau et al. (2013), this person, in a manner only influences cognitive process, their motivations and their behavior. Hall (2005) about the subject when talking about the multiplicity of personal systems of meaning and cultural representation, in which the individual is confronted by a large quantity of possible identities. So, what characterizes the concept of personality is the reference to the complexity, its uniqueness and consistency of the personality of an individual. Strehlau et al. (2013) argues that personality, in the long term, results in a consistent form of interaction with their environment, ensuring a unique character and stability of behavior.
Being the personality a particular configuration of qualities that make a person unique, their traces can share a similar concept with a brand, only differing in terms of how they are formed. Perceptions of human personality traits are inferred based on the behavior of an individual, physical characteristics, attitudes and beliefs and in the demographic characteristics, according to Aaker (1997); While for Strehlau et al. (2013), is the most obvious printing or stress that an individual raise himself to others, positively or negatively. How to understand Hall (2005), social identity is formed over a long time, and may be incomplete or in processing.
On disclosure of fashion products, understand consumer behavior allows selection of appropriate promotional messages. For Easey (2009), an advertising photography can reflect a particular lifestyle that consumers want, realizing the product as a vehicle for the realization of this dream. The use of celebrities in advertising actions also allows companies sets reach certain target audiences that can be influenced by process ID (Apejoye, 2013). McCracken (2003) States that the consumption of a given product is an important means of communication, representation and definition of the "I". Belk (1988), in turn, argues that the possessions of a person can contribute to the reflection of your identity; the products that are part of your life help define social identities: who the consumer is, where is and who hopes to become.
Quantitative, descriptive research, survey-type of field. For the data collection instrument was used with 24 questions about fashion-related attributes to the tag Arezzo, drawn from studies Aaker (1997) and of Strehlau et al. (2013), described below.
This research is characterized by the numerical description of trends, attitudes and opinions of a population to study a portion of it (Creswell, 2007). Descriptive research is structured to measure features in a matter of research, whose cross section happens by collecting data at one point of time and synthesized statistically. The field survey or survey wonders directly people and presents advantages knowledge straight from reality, economy, speed in getting the data and quantification (Hair Jr. et al., 2005).
The instrument (Annex A) presents identification issues-such as age, level of education and income and 24 questions regarding attributes (characteristics) of the brand, from the studies of Aaker (1997) and Strehlau et al. (2013), both explained in items 3.2 and 3.3. Each respondent pointed out their degree of agreement on a seven-point scale "in-between", which ranged from "strongly disagree" (1) the "totally agree" (7), to the direct question How do you evaluate the features below as belonging to the brand personality Arezzo of women’s shoes? For you, the brand Arezzo is … followed by 24 alternatives for each of the attributes brought the Aaker (1997), which gave focus to five dimensions of personality of a brand, and of Strehlau et al. (2013), which discussed recurring personality characteristics in individuals.
The population is represented by consumers between 16 and 40 years, buyers of the brand Arezzo, residents of the cities of Brusque and Ibirama in Santa Catarina. The sample was composed of 125 respondents contacted by accessibility to franchised brand stores Arezzo in these cities during the period from 20 to 27 September 2013, that were willing to answer the questionnaire after a purchase in the store of the brand. Almost all of the respondents is graduated, which facilitated the understanding of the concepts covered. All work, maids or employers. After the initial approach, with presentation of the project of studies, brief explanation of what this was the theme of the research and to question that filtered the respondents (completing a purchase that franchised store of Arezzo at the moment), wondered about the interest in participating. After the accepted, started filling out the questionnaire, with approximate time between twelve and nineteen minutes. Only six women refused to participate citing little time to participate.
Made the collection, if proceeded to analysis and interpretation of data, second Hair Jr. et al. (2005), have the objective to answer the problem proposed and get answers widely through the interaction of knowledge obtained. For this step, the data were tabulated in a spreadsheet and imported into Excel®software, subsequently treated by SPSS® version 19.
Was used, as advocates Hair et al. (2005), analysis of the medium, frequency, Cronbach’s alpha and the Pearson correlation, with the use of the program SPSS. For data analysis, frequency was used for investigation of the perception of the existence of the attributes. The second procedure used was the review by Cronbach’s alpha, for investigation of the reliability of the data collection instrument, with indexes above 0.60, as defends Hair Jr. et al. (2005). The third step was the analysis through the Pearson correlation, which "measures the linear association between two metric variables" (Hair Jr. et al., 2005, p. 313).
Aaker (1997) suggests the existence of five dimensions of brand personality: honesty (which represents the characteristics of domestic, honest, genuine and joyful); excitement (daring, creativity, animation, to be updated); competence (responsibility, reliability, efficiency and security); sophistication (glamour, charm, romance and claim); and robustness (masculinity and strength). These traces are formed and influenced by direct and indirect contacts between the consumer and the brand.
Aaker used of the psychological approach, already commented by Allport (1973), one of the leading scholars of the human personality. She claims that the numerous attributes used to describe human personality can be described by a limited number of classes or latent dimensions, using factorial analysis metrics that reveal, in the case of the human personality, a structure composed of five major factors (whose model is called the Big Five -the five major dimensions of human personality).
As is desirable for any scale or theoretical framework, the scale of Aaker (1997) has been replicated or reconstructed in several studies considering other contexts (see Aaker and T. Benet-Martinez, 2001; Supphellen et Gronhaug, 2003), showing some similarities and variations in the dimensions of brand personality of the results, and keeping as a range of reliable, valid and generalizable measures.
This model was developed by Kenmo (2005), with the goal of creating a test to help the assessment of individuals in recruitment and selection, and at the same time allows to extend the knowledge of the same. The author wanted to make complex psychoanalytic concepts, in which the test is based on concepts of rapid comprehension by the public. The dimensions assessed in this model are sensitivity, strength, quality, structure, imagination, stability and contacts, as the later studies and replication of the model performed by Strehlau et al. (2013).
Personality characteristics more applicants in individuals are:
The Arezzo&Co, popularly known as Arezzo, is one of the largest sets of Brazil, worth 2.6 billion R$ according to Exame magazine (2014). The company owns four brands: Arezzo (61.6% of total turnover of the Group), Schutz (36.7%), Anacapri (3.2%) and Alexandre Birman (0.5%). The owners, father and son, are included in the list of the richest men in the country, with R$ 1.7 billion fortune at industry leading footwear, handbags and women’s accessories in Brazil, the Group has been on the market for 39 years, selling more than six million pairs of shoes a year, in addition to handbags and accessories. The marks of Arezzo & Co are associated with a lifestyle differentiated (Arezzo&co, 2013).
According to information from the company’s Web site:
The Arezzo&Co was founded in 1972 in the city of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The brand was born from the inspiration and desire of the family to turn the production to Birman Italian fashion, in the context of the years 70, amidst the great influence of the European fashion in the world.
The first landmark of brand consolidation Arezzo in the Brazilian market of women’s footwear in 1979, with the release of Anabela sandal, covered with jute. The model quickly became successful sales. Yet in the years 90, the focus of the brand Arezzo became the specialization in research and development of new models and trends, and in retail sales. The manufacturing operations were closed in Minas Gerais and the outsourcing of production has to be carried out in the region of Vale dos Sinos footwear, Rio Grande do Sul. The concept of fast fashion came to prominence and business operations were centered in São Paulo.
Giving one more step towards institutionalization, in 2011 the Arezzo & Co became a publicly-traded company, with shares traded under the ticker ARZZ3 and listed on the Novo Mercado of BM & F Bovespa (Arezzo&Co, 2013).
The following is the analysis of the search results.
It was initially made the lifting of medium age, income and level of education. The average age of respondents is 22.59 years; the degree of instruction, have higher education, with a standard deviation of 0.586; already, the average income of respondents receives between 3000.00 R$ and R$ 3500.00, with standard deviation of 2.36, as presented in Table 1.
Table 1: Average age, income and level of education. Santa Catarina, 2013.
No attribute obtained a percentage of disagreement than agreement, suggesting that the respondents the observed in the trademark search. The percentages listed in Table 2:
Table 2. Frequencies of perception of brand attributes Arezzo. Santa Catarina, 2013.
The attributes more observed as frequency analysis were: elegant, with 81%; durable, with 79.1%; current, with 76.2% creative and glamorous, both with 73.3%. The data suggest that the customer passes a brand identity and imagination, according to the model of studied by Kenmo studied by Strehlau et al. (2013), and excitement, sophistication and competence, according to Aaker (1997). Specifically, the attributes of elegance, glamour and converge to the defending Douglas et Isherwood (2004), on the assets be invested in socially values used to express principles, cultivating ideals and sustain lifestyles, among other actions. Thus, the consumer can assume different identities at different times, according to Hall (2005), why are not unified around an "I".
As a result, the attributes more observed were: comfortable, with 72.4%, confident and sexy, both with 72.3%. This also demonstrated performance and aesthetic characteristics, the dimensions and Sophistication, according to Aaker (1997), and the strength and Quality dimensions, according to the model Human Guide. It may be important to consider what defends Hall (2005), who believes that the identity may not even be fully formed within us, before demonstrating a lack of wholeness that is completed from the outside, for what I imagined others to see in us, something. To several authors (Belk, 1988; McCracken, 2003) the role of consumption is more than simply a satisfaction of needs, but rather a provider of meanings into his personal life.
The second phase of analysis is provided in the Cronbach’s Alpha in the pursuit of reliability of the answers. The reliability of the obtained data, indicating that all values were above 0.6-index considered reliable as Hair Jr. et al. (2005). These figures were significant at the 0.01 level.
In practical terms, Table 3 shows that the perception of consumers, with regard to brand attributes studied, obeys different dimensions.
Table 3. Reliability of data obtained. Santa Catarina, 2013.
|Cronbach's alpha||Cronbach's Alpha based on standardized items||Number of items|
The third step was the analysis of the correlation, given by the Pearson model, between the attributes perceived by consumers, which has led to the results in table 4.
The Pearson correlation coefficient indicates the Association and linearity between the variables analyzed, indicating the similarity in the distribution of scores from each one of them, according to Figueiredo Filho et Silva Jr. (2009).
The longest relationship observed, considered with high strength, is among the attributes reliable and responsible, with a value of 0.752. This shows that consumers who value performance notice several features related to this aspect. This assertion also exposes the correlation found between reliable and durable, second largest correlation found, with moderate force 0.652. How to understand Hall (2005), social identity at the moment is formed over a long time, and always incomplete, being processed. Lipovetsky (2006) suggests that this is the consumption of balance and self-esteem, since products are impregnated with values and feelings, assigned by the brands of products. These marks are not sought to obtain possession of the product and an experience.
Already for the third largest correlation met the glamorous attributes and creative, with moderate force 0.638; followed by attributes free and natural, with 0.637; conservative and natural, with 0.611; and charming and bold, with 0.607. Most attributes represent design features, demonstrating that consumers relate style characteristics. This refers to the understanding of Hall (2005), when talking about the multiplicity of personal systems of meaning and cultural representation, in which the individual is confronted by large amount of possible identities. McCracken also (2003) argues that these meanings are formed within the cultures and based on available resources, such as values and habits. The author suggests that all forms of consumption are culturally moved under the modes of life significant, with which people produce and reproduce social relations.
Table 4. Pearson correlation coefficient between the attributes. Santa Catarina, 2013.
Aspects that refer to the Charming and bold can be related to what Belk (1988) argues: the possessions of a person can be contributors to the reflection of their identity; the products that are part of your life help define social identities, more specifically who the consumer is, where is and who hopes to become. For Bordieu (1974) consumption is a process of differentiation and distinction between classes and social groups due to the symbolic and aesthetic aspects of the activity. The author advocates that the accumulation of specific goods attests to the taste and the distinction of who owns.
The smallest observed correlations, considered small, located in attributes and High-spirited Comfortable, with non-existent correlation factor, i.e. 0.00%. Then, the Current and Natural relationship, with 0.019 light force; followed by safe and Natural, hard small set of 0.022. As a third less strength, the Efficient and conservative relations (0.023) and Glamorous and Natural (0.029).
The objective was to identify, from the efforts of communication provided, the perception of consumers about the female brand Arezzo in the construction of their identity. As quantitative measures, this study has examined not communication, but rather the perception of consumers.
Ultimately, these form the brand image through communication effort conducted by the advertiser. The use of the product, are showing the world its identity. This process of reverse analysis of the communication process is quite logical for the Marketing area, when you consider that the expected result of an advertising campaign or a sponsorship action is the return through the consumer, is the placement of the mark in his mind, is the purchase of a given well. In the specific case of identity and brand image, the truth about this procedure is accentuated. How the identity is a process of issuing, and the image a reception process, when communicating the desired attributes for the formation of an identity (issue), it is expected that the image formed (reception) is similar to what was reported. Look at what builds consumer identity is a way to establish an organizational image, because at some point the two fronts meet.
The various existing brands in the fashion industry seek to establish an image that comes close to the customer, as a way to conquer a space in the mind of the consumer. Through attributes to remember personal characteristics or performance of the product, this proximity has been essential to that consumers identify with the product and will turn this usage as meaning of your "I". Depending on the findings of this study, are the subjective aspects that help the construction of identity. The attributes with a higher perception (fashionable, durable, current, creative and glamorous, in addition to comfortable, confident and sexy), only durable and comfortable relate to performance objective of the product.
This process of construction of identity, through the responses obtained, passes through that McCracken (2003) termed the logical transfer of meanings. Thus, an object used evokes its meaning and the consumer takes for you this meaning. In this sense, the identity of the consumer becomes confused with the good that the Organization manufacturer reported on your value proposition. The communication of Arezzo, held in magazine ads, TV commercials and the internet, merchandising and point of sale materials, demonstrates the identity communicated as the shaper of your image, while downloading the meanings intended for consumers. There is a cause and effect relationship, being the image a variable dependent on the identity of the brand, according to Aaker (1996).
Consumers who use the products studied so do to change, improve or expand the image they have of themselves. To Douglas et Isherwood (2004), a buyer uses the consumption to say something about yourself. Agree with this statement McCracken (2003), by stating that the consumption of a given product is an important means of communication, representation and definition of the "I". These studies corroborate with the understanding that the brand has achieved success in Arezzo of your organizational identity, since the image that consumers have of it is embedded in the everyday and used, including, to improve or change their own identity. This initiative meets the defending Barbosa et Campbell (2006), when they claim that people use heavily new products in current consumer society to be regularly engaged in a process of personal, individual recreation.
There was also a strong correlation between the characteristics of same dimension observed by the consumers, as reliable and Responsible, evaluating the company; Reliable and durable, valuing performance; Glamorous and creative as questions of style. Now the goods that consumers have always represent something. For Belk (1998), goods can symbolically extend the self of the person, becoming a literal extension of this consumer.
Consumers of the brand Arezzo show that your identity is very close to the goods they consume, as the construction and reconstruction of that identity. McCracken (2003) States that the meanings are culturally established and transferred to the property at some point, and that later are consumed by people with the aim of appropriation for the construction of social identity. If Belk (1988) believes that consumption is a supplier of meanings to life and McCracken (2003) argues that the meaning of an object is transferred to the person who has through its use and exposure, when the consumer responds positively to aspects such as glamour, elegance, sensuality or actuality of the brand is Deconstructing his studied social identity from the inside out, in such a way that allows to understand how it was built.
Efforts for identification, definition and dissemination of knowledge about organizational identity and its construction have been widely desired. Thus, this study sought to identify the attributes that are perceived by the consumers of the brand Arezzo, as part of the construction of their identity. To do the other way around, seeking the perceived image of the brand, confirms the identity proposed by the advertiser.
From the findings, other researchers can follow up to work replicating the two models presented or deepening in one of them, from another strong brand of fashion, as way to bring out new knowledge about identity.
At the same time, opens up a possibility of qualitative research on the topic, because information obtained already allow an initial scenario on which the identity of consumers of fashion brand. In this sense, knowledge tends to expand strongly, because the understanding of the people as consumers could prove more deeply. Specifically, opens the possibility of developing work related to the statement of one or more organizations as capital element for the understanding of identity that the brand advertiser intends to disclose.
For organizations operating in competitive markets, the findings here can assist in developing strategies for value proposition and implementation of communication strategies. In addition, organizational marketing actions can be preceded by academic studies on the sector, specifically on brand identity, in such a way that the desired connection Company-University flow from concrete results and possible adoption.
This study uses models widely tested as a basis for their data collection. In this sense, the findings are relevant for academics and executives. However, we must highlight the fact of having studied a single brand, although very important in the fashion sector. There lies the necessity of more research of this order, with other brands and geographic realities.
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