Technology transfer as the basis for the evolution of developing countries

Lucas Wanderley Gaudie-Ley

Fluminense Federal University - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Adriana Azevedo Netto

Fluminense Federal University - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Estefan Monteiro da Fonseca

Fluminense Federal University - UFF, Niterói, RJ, Brazil.

Over the last decade, sustainable development has been seen by several global nations as the ideal practice to be achieved, even being the focus of the UN through its latest deliberations (17 Sustainable Development Goals, 2012 - SDGs). The post-pandemic situation of COVID-19 has further reinforced the need for public policies that consider the global environmental balance concerning managing environmental resources, which are already scarce in several cases. In this scenario, technology continues to be a key element in transitioning to a more balanced model. On the other hand, international efforts to stimulate the evolution of developing countries have yet to produce results commensurate with their demands. Moreover, the academic debate needs to be revised.

The 27th United Nations Climate Conference, more commonly referred to as COP27, occurred in November 2022. The event hosted over 50 interactive sessions, bringing together over 800 leaders from sectors, generations, and countries. These sessions drove multi-stakeholder action in areas as broad as increasing climate ambition, financing the Net-Zero transition, accelerating industry decarbonization, water security, adaptation finance, ocean innovation, and more. Thus, the centerpiece of the post-22 development agenda was the renewal of the commitment to sustainable development and the promotion of an economically, socially, and environmentally balanced future for our planet and present and future generations.

Not surprisingly and already well before the SDGs, sustainability's pluralistic and dynamic nature makes its operationalization questionable (Kemp & Martens, 2007). In contrast, the general understanding of technology's role as one of the "implementation means" and the feasibility of sustainability goals (United Nations, 2015) keeps this ideal alive.

It is common sense that "development" is based on the sum of technological, social, and institutional capacities built over time, coupled with multiple wave events of growth opportunities (Pérez, 2001). Thus, the use of technology becomes a determinant of any economy's prosperity (Keller, 2004; Ruttan & Hayami, 1973). It is also considered that, besides being a development tool, technology enables the viability of development programs (Pérez, 2001).

Even with all the global support, technological tools still need to show full adherence to the sustainability context. The main gaps in the technology support environment for sustainable practices include the definitions of the most effective or appropriate technology tools for certain issues and the most appropriate means for technology transitions. Last but also important, the best ways to implement technologies and adequately support innovation, including across national borders, must be sought (United Nations, 2016). These issues are critical globally but are even more present in developing countries since the limitation is not only on technology availability but also on the existence of human resources to deliver it, as well as physical, financial, institutional, and organizational capital (Pigato et al., 2020) for its implementation.

Based on the aforementioned information, the present issue of S&G Journal provides titles such as "Evaluation of Environmental Conditions of the Elements of a Rural Landscape Using the Free Software Google Earth Pro," "Artificial Intelligence and Financial Asset Price Forecasting: A Systematic Review," "Dynamic Capabilities and International Entrepreneurship in Pernambuco's Technology Park: Analysis of Companies in Porto Digital," and "ACISIWEBSHOP: The First Regional Marketplace of the City of Ivaiporã-PR," which address the use of technologies in the environmental, financial, and entrepreneurial fields, respectively, to optimize their flows. Conversely, titles such as "Qualification of Company Performance in Compulsory Environmental Auditing Reports in the State of Rio de Janeiro" and "Environmental Governance for the Protection of the Amazon and Cerrado Biomes: What Has Brazil Done?" present environmental sustainability as an ideal scenario for development. Last but not least, articles such as "The Importance of Evaluating Occupational Risks and Factors Compromising Environmental Comfort for Students and Professionals in the School Environment" and "State Capacity and Public Health Cooperation Networks in Controlling the COVID-19 Pandemic" present tools to be respected in the fields of education and health.


Keller, W. (2004), ‘International technology diffusion’, Journal of Economic Literature Nashville, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 752–782.

Pérez, C. (2001), ‘Technological change and opportunities for development as a moving target’, CEPAL Review, vol. 75, pp. 109–130.

Pigato, M.A., Black, S.J., Dussaux, D.C.R., Mao, Z., Mckenna, J.M., Rafaty, R.M & Touboul, S. (2020), Technology transfer and innovation for low-carbon development, Washington, DC, World Bank, pp. 1–231.

Ruttan, V.W & Hayami, Y. (1973), ‘Technology transfer and agricultural development’, Technology and Culture, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 119–151.

Received: Dec. 20, 2022

Approved: Dec. 20, 2022

DOI: 10.20985/1980-5160.2022.v17n3.1849

How to cite: Gaudie-Ley, L.W., Azevedo Netto, A., Fonseca, E.M. (2022). Technology transfer as the basis for the evolution of developing countries. Revista S&G 17, 3.