Andreia Alves de Almeida
Arthur Thomas College – FAAT, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Bernadete Lema Mazzafera
Norte do Paraná University – Unopar, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
Anderson Teixeira Rolim
Norte do Paraná University – Unopar, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil
The objective of this study is to describe the process of inclusion in the job market of people with visual impairment in the Londrina-PR region, highlighting the importance of special schools in the training and inclusion of these people and the role of the company. In addition, it was intended to theoretically tie the issue of corporate social responsibility to social inclusion. In order to answer the proposed question, a descriptive research was conducted, through semi-structured interviews, adapted from the studies of Soares (2006). Four interviews were conducted: two with special school students; one with a school employee and one with the employer of one of the students. Data were analyzed qualitatively through content analysis. The results of the research stand out as facilitating aspects for insertion in the labor market: the quota law; the resources of information technology and, above all, the will power of people with visual impairment individuals to seek a position and prove that they are capable of carrying out the assigned function. The challenging aspects highlighted by them were: lack of information and prejudice regarding the work capacity of people with visual impairment.
Keywords: Visual impairment; Inclusion; Work; School.
Companies are made up of individuals and in a society or organization there are different types of people, whether in relation to culture, ethnicity, race, religion or special needs, i.e. cultural diversity is present (Aligleri et al., 2009). In this sense, companies must become more humanized in the process of recruiting, selecting, monitoring and rewarding people, respecting existing diversities, hiring people of different races, sex, age, religion, nationality, sexual orientation and people with special needs, as is the case of people with visual impairment (Aligleri et al., 2009).
"Social inclusion is the adequacy of society to the needs of its members so that they can fully exercise their right to citizenship. This inclusion must be done mainly through work "(Leite, 2004, p.26).
The social inclusion of people with visual impairment in the labor market is directly linked to corporate social responsibility. For Aligleri et al. (2009), a socially responsible company adopts, as a recruitment and selection practice, the hiring of disabled people in greater number than the required by law.
There are several obstacles faced by people with visual impairment to enter the labor market, ranging from the requirement of a skilled workforce to competitiveness and false conception of their performance and the preconception that their visual limitation affects their other functions, including their ability to be productive and independent (Leite, 2004).
To be considered inclusive, society must meet all the special needs of people with visual impairment; democracy materializes in serving all these diversities (Maciel, 2000). This study aims to describe the process of inclusion of people with visual impairment in the labor market of the region of Londrina-PR, highlighting the importance of special schools in the formation and inclusion of these people and the role of the company. It was also intended to tie theoretically the issue of corporate social responsibility to social inclusion.
According to Felix (2003), corporate social responsibility is divided into internal and external. The first one refers to internal social responsibility, whose main factors are: human resource management and natural resource management. The external, in turn, goes beyond the company's relationship with its employees and production inputs, and also affects the company's relationship with its suppliers, consumers, the community and the environment.
Globalization, insofar as it presupposes an evolution of the media and information technology, also influences the conduct of companies as their actions become increasingly public and, therefore, subject to social control, which demands a much greater attention to the image that the organization transmits to society (Felix, 2003, p.17).
According to Tenório (2006), corporate social responsibility is divided into two moments. The first corresponds to the beginning of the twentieth century until the 1950s, when society moved from the agricultural to the industrial economy, when technological evolution and the inclusion of science as the organizer of labor were triggered. The second moment, according to the author, corresponds to the period from 1950 to the present, taking a contemporary approach, in which sustainable development is increasingly on the agenda.
In the 1950s some studies on Corporate Social Responsibility emerged from the concepts of the post-industrial society; however, it was from 1970 that the theme and the work developed in this area gained strength (Tenório, 2006).
The concept of corporate social responsibility has undergone some changes since 1980. For Tenório (2006), these changes occurred because of the resumption of liberal ideology and globalization. With this, arguments were created in favor of a participative and responsible market and regulator of the business activities.
In this sense of the concept, the market is mainly responsible for the regulation and supervision of business activities, preventing abuse by companies. It is up to the consumer to retaliate by boycotting or protesting the products of companies that do not respect the rights of agents and that pollute the environment. (Tenório, 2006, p. 24).
According to Tenório (2006), in the 1990s, with the debates of neoliberal ideology, the concept that connects corporate social responsibility to sustainable development, which includes the economic, environmental and business dimensions was born. This concept relates to the so-called triple bottom line.
The concept of Triple Bottom Line, derived from the study by Elkington (1994) in English, is known by 3P (People, Planet and Profit); in Portuguese, it would be PPL (Pessoas, Planeta e Lucro). Analyzing them separately, we have: Economic, whose purpose is the creation of viable enterprises, attractive to investors; Environmental, whose objective is to analyze the interaction of processes with the environment without causing permanent damages; and Social Committee, which is concerned with establishing fair actions for workers, partners and society (Oliveira et al., 2012, p. 73).
In 1990, in Brazil, several non-governmental organizations (NGOs) emerge and there is the development of the third sector. In this scenario, there is greater interest in highlighting social actions for business and society (Tenório, 2006).
In relation to socially responsible management, it is verified that the way the company treats its employees interferes directly with performance and satisfaction, even more than a good salary (Aligleri et al., 2009).
In order for the company to be part of the process of socially responsible management, it is necessary that social inclusion takes place. Sassaki (1997) presents as a concept of social inclusion the adaptation in which society starts including people with visual impairment in their general systems, which, in turn, need to prepare for their place in society, that is, a new society built from of small and large transformations, whether in the physical environment or in the mentality of all individuals in society.
Social inclusion, in practice, presents some principles that until then were considered as unusual "such as: acceptance of individual differences, appreciation of each person, coexistence within human diversity, learning through cooperation” (Sassaki, 1997, p. 41-42). Within the concept of change and adaptations for inclusion, Sassaki (1997) draws attention to the problems that society creates for people with impairment, such as:
Restrictive environments; discriminatory policies, preconceived attitudes; debatable patterns of normality; objects and other goods inaccessible from the physical point of view; prerequisites attainable only by the seemingly homogeneous majority; misinformation in terms of special needs and rights of people with discriminatory needs and practices in many sectors of human activity (Sassaki, 1997, p.47).
It is found that it is the responsibility of society to decimate existing barriers, making available to people with impairment everything that is necessary for personal, social, educational and professional development (Sassaki, 1997).
According to Tomazini (1996), the person with impairment still face great barriers in the course of their life; however, it can be said that there are two areas of their life in which these barriers are more difficult to break; they are: the family and labor environment. Soares (2006) stresses the importance of the family in the inclusion process, because if the family does not have the support of the family, the person with impairment will have more difficult to feel included, which can occur in all the follow-ups of their lives, including at work.
According to Sassaki (1997), what makes an enterprise inclusive is the importance it attaches to cultural differences, human diversity, and concern to adapt procedures to the physical environment, to labor instruments, to human resources and to the administrative practices. In addition, "a company can become inclusive on the initiative and commitment of its employees, who seek information relevant to the principle of inclusion" (Sassaki, 1997, p.65).
According to Soares (2006), the inclusion of the person with impairment is a complex, controversial process that takes on ever greater proportions, whether personal or professional. According to the author, this is because society and the labor market do not know how to deal with this process of inclusion, requiring more and more qualification, so that they reach the total quality of their products and services. In view of these demands, they believe that the disabled person is incapable of carrying out the work.
There are many challenges faced by disabled people for inclusion in the labor market. Sassaki (1997) describes these challenges as phases of exclusion, segregation, integration and inclusion. Table 1 highlights some characteristics of each phase.
Table 1. The four phases of labor market access
Source: Adapted from Sassaki (1997, p. 60-64).
Of all the phases, the most recent is the inclusion phase, in which one of the most relevant factors is the emergence of the inclusive company. This does not imply that the other phases ceased to exist (Sassaki, 1997).
It is worth mentioning that some of the above factors are beneficial for all employees, whether people with impairment or not, but some of these are specific for these people.
The entry of a person with impairment into the labor market occurs by two main options. One of them is direct self-placement, in which the person goes out in search of a market place by itself. The other is through specialized institutions or support associations for people with impairment (Sassaki, 1997).
One of the most important factors for the inclusion of people with special needs in the labor market was the creation of Law No. 8,213 / 91 of July 24, 1991, which determines that a percentage of vacancies for the people with impairment is reserved. Article 93 of this law requires the company to reserve a percentage of vacancies for rehabilitated beneficiaries or persons with impairment, in the following proportions: between 100 and 200 employees, there must be up to 2% of vacancies filled by people with impairment; from 201 to 500 employees, 3% of vacancies; from 501 to 1000, 4%, and above 1,000, vacancies filled by disabled or rehabilitated beneficiaries is 5% (Brasil, 2012).
Among the various obstacles faced by the visually impaired to enter the labor market, there is a demand for skilled labor, competitiveness, false conception about their performance. However, they are breaking these paradigms, proving their skills in their workplaces, demonstrating the ability to be productive and their ability to concentrate (Leite, 2004).
Another great barrier faced by the visually impaired for insertion in the job market is locomotion, because, when they look for institutions responsible for the support of the disabled, "they need a person with vision, to accompany them, because the path is unknown, and presents a lot of insecurity and fear, which is natural "(Leite, 2004, 21).
Araújo et Schmidt (2006) affirm that the process of including people with impaired in the labor market depends on the creation of adequate mechanisms.
[…] the process and meaning of working and being unemployed are not different from those that occur to anyone, but with an aggravating factor: for people with disabilities to get work and show they are capable, they need to break social myths , such as the view of their unproductiveness or even the behavior of their relatives, such as excessive special care (Leite, 2004 p. 19).
The dissemination of inclusion programs is largely the responsibility of the media, because the information needs to reach everyone, whether through television, radio, newspaper, magazines, etc.. (Leite, 2004).
Leite (2004) states that it is much more difficult to insert a person with congenital blindness into the labor market than those who were blinded by an accident at work. Most of these people live in the informal market, protected by their families or institutions.
According to Leite (2004), another path to inclusion is the right to participate in public competition, guaranteed by the Federal Constitution of 1988 and infraconstitutional laws.
In the city of Londrina, only half of the companies can comply with the quota law and one of the factors is the lack of training presented by many people with impaired to fill the vacancies. Another issue is that some individuals choose to receive the Continuous Benefit rather than being in the labor market (Lemes, 2012). This fact begins to undergo changes, due to an amendment in Decree 7,617 of November 17, 2011, according to which the disabled will have the benefit suspended when they are employed; however, if they have no income, they can have their benefit reestablished (Brasil, 2013).
Data from 2007 and 2008 of the Atlas of the Labor Market Observatory of the Ministry of Labor and Employment shows that in the labor market, about 921 workers with some type of disability were included in the labor market. If it is compared to other cities of the same size, this number can be considered small (Lemes, 2012).
The law that guarantees the right to enter the job market for people with impaired is very important, but for it to be efficient it needs to be supervised. To this end, the Municipal Labor and Income Secretariat of Londrina requested the Regional Labor Delegate to tighten supervision on companies with more than 100 employees to meet the required quota (Almeida, 2012).
The Regional Labor Management estimate that just in Londrina about 140 companies have a functional framework that requires the use of the Quotas Law for the disabled, but just 80% of them comply with the legislation. "Those that do not comply claim that many people with disabilities end up giving up the job because they do not adapt or for fear of losing the benefit to which they are entitled," explains the chief of inspection Rogério Perez Garcia Junior, referring to the Benefit of Provision Continuous (BP) (Fonseca, 2013).
There are also some municipal laws that corroborate the inclusion of the visually impaired. One of them is Municipal Law 7,773/1999, which makes it mandatory to adapt public buildings, its internal areas, furniture and urban equipment, in order to facilitate the locomotion of the disabled, especially the visually impaired (Londrina, 1999).
A relevant issue is the lack of information not only on the part of the person with impaired, but also on the part of the employer, who most often does not know how to deal with an employee with an impaired.
The issue of inclusion of the visually impaired in Londrina is a contradictory fact. On one side are the companies that offer vacancies for the people with impaired and claim that the vacancy is not filled due to the lack of qualification and the available manpower. On the other hand, the people with impaired seek professional placement; however, they report the difficulty of finding a job in the market due to lack of information and prejudice from employers (Gonçalves, 2013).
According to Leite (2004), companies need to enable people with impaired to show their talents, and this is only possible if opportunities are offered to accomplish tasks, which are often vetoed. In this case, there will be real inclusion and not just a quota fill.
To answer the questions of this study, a descriptive research was conducted and the qualitative approach was used in the analysis of the data. Field research was developed in two institutions: one philanthropic and one public. Two adult students from a philanthropic institution that cares for the visually impaired, a philanthropic collaborator and the employer of person with impaired were included in this study.
As a specific technique to obtain the required information, interviews with students and collaborators of the respective organizations and the employer of one of the students were used after signing the free and informed consent form.
The research was applied through semi-structured scripts adapted from the studies of Soares (2006). The scripts were composed of: six questions open to the employee participant; three open questions for the unemployed participant; five open questions for the employer; and three open questions to the institute's collaborator. To analyze the data, the material was first organized according to the objectives and issues of the study. After reading the material, the recording unit and the significant sections were defined. From this moment on, the content analysis was used. According to Chizzotti (2001, p.98), "content analysis is a method of treatment and analysis of information, collected through data collection techniques, embodied in a document".
Content analysis can be used to verify hypotheses and / or questions of the study, one can find answers to the questions formulated and discover what is behind the formulated content (Gomes, 1994). The purpose of this analysis is to critically understand the meaning of communications, as in the study at hand.
The results are presented from the research participants.
This interviewee is 21 years old and has lived in Londrina for about eighteen months. He is currently preparing to take a university entrance exam and intends to study law.
Regarding the insertion in the labor market and the role of the school, the interviewee stated the following:
“The Institute has a nice schooling job, but I think that, like most things here in Londrina, it is monopolized; it does not help you in anything in terms of the job market. The institute, like the great majority of public institutions that work with accessibility and inclusion, does a work aimed at the disabled who are attending primary and secondary education; in addition, the institute does not offer support to university students”.
Moreover, regarding the period of time she seeks employment she reports the following:
“It's been a year and a half since I've been here, asking, you know ... for them to refer me; besides I already have work experience and no one indicated me at all, so I guess not”.
The result of the interview on the issue of accessibility, inclusion and literacy correlates with the descriptions of Argenta et Sá (2010), when he mentions the importance of the role of special schools in the process of adaptation of the blind student, which includes literacy in Braille, use of Soroban, the use of technological resources, guidance and mobility. These data also coincide with the studies of Araújo and Schmidt (2006) on the importance of creating adequate mechanisms for inclusion.
In this way, the data presented by Sassaki (1997) can be related to the society's responsibility to eliminate existing barriers that hamper personal, social, educational and professional development, such as those mentioned by the student requesting inclusion for university students. Andrade (2004) stresses the importance of higher education institutions to be able to receive students with visual impairment, the adequacy of materials, physical environment and instructing teachers to receive students.
On the challenging aspects in the insertion of the labor market, the interviewee reports:
“Prejudice and lack of information are the factors that most prevent people from giving opportunities to individuals with disabilities. They have a lot of prejudice towards the visually impaired; they do not know that there are software programs in Londrina, because nobody divulges them. There are voice programs, such as: Nvda, jaws, virtual vision and dosVox. With these screen readers I can do any kind of work: administrative assistant, telemarketer, office assistant, telephone operator, etc.”
Regarding the lack of information, the interview data can be compared with the studies by Maciel (2000), in which it is emphasized that the lack of information and knowledge about the deficiency leads the society to regard the disabled people as a weight or problem, considering them incapable and helpless.
"The city hall or, say, the legal sector should make a law for greater monitoring of quotas, for example. There is a company here in Londrina that pays a fine; they prefer to pay a fine rather than hire a handicapped person."
“In Londrina we also have another serious problem that is the issue the blind individuals that are able to pass in public tenders, since I know several friends who have passed in public tenders, but were barred from assuming their positions”.
In the question of public tenders, the results of the interview can be contrasted with Leite (2004), when he states that, even though it is approved in the competition, the disabled candidate undergoes some evaluations and, in some of these evaluations, with the justification of medical experts that the candidate is not fit to perform the function. In these cases, the candidate must resort to administrative appeals or even to court to reverse this situation and be able to show his knowledge.
The interviewee reports that he has attended school for 20 years and has worked in the public institution for 14 years, through a public tender.
Regarding the insertion in the job market and the role of the school, the interviewee comments:
“When you have some ... a certain difficulty, a barrier in the field, the institute is there to support you. There they already have the solution for all those needs. At first, usually when the visually impaired starts, that is, when he enters the job market, he is often disoriented; often he does not know anything. He passed the contest, but he has no idea in terms of what the... he's going to do there. They did not know what to do with me, when I arrived and said, 'Calm down! I was just observing what you were going to do'; it was when I asked the Institute to come here and advise me on what functions I could perform; that is when I started in the home hospitalization”.
The result of the interview highlights the role of special schools in the inclusion process and diverges from the outcome of the unemployed interviewee. In addition, they coincide with the studies of Sassaki (1997), which point out the options of placement in the labor market. According to the interview, special schools do not only have the role of assisting in the search for a job, the main one for the interviewee is the support provided by the school during the whole adaptation process.
As for the challenging aspects in the insertion of the labor market, the interviewee reports:
“The society out there is not prepared to receive disabled people. Brazil is far behind in this matter. When I came, nobody knew about this computer program. I was the one who brought it”.
When analyzing the interview, there is a parallel with the studies of Soares (2006) on the unpreparedness of the labor market in the inclusion process. According to Maciel (2000), a society to be considered inclusive must meet all the needs of the person with impaired.
“What makes it easy is that I have the willpower to learn new things and solve problems. The handicapped is the coach himself, because he already lives with all the needs, so he has the resources to solve them. And they saw that I am a person who tries to solve the obstacles. So you are respected by the people in charge”.
The data of the interview coincide with the studies of Leite (2004), when mentioning that the person must break the social myths that consider him as an incapable or unproductive person.
Regarding the adaptations and difficulties faced in the workplace, the interviewee reported the following:
“Well, as it turned out, this is an information service, so, besides the computer with this software, I need a list in braille, with all the telephones, health posts, hospitals, and many others”.
On adaptations, Uliana (2008) points out the importance of computing in this process and that there are software programs such as NVDA, which reads everything on the computer screen and helps the people with impaired to make use of computer resources to perform the work tasks.
“At first, we need someone to tell us where to find things until we adapt ourselves; we need to know whether we punched the timecard or not because the computer does not detect it”.
The interview data relates to studies that describe the initial need to have someone with the vision to provide the necessary guidance (Leite, 2004).
The interviewee is a human resources manager of an administrative unit of a public institution.
With regard to the selection criterion and necessary adaptations, she reports:
“The selection criterion for any server is the public tender”.
According to Leite (2004), the public tender is another important path for the inclusion of the visually impaired in the labor market, thanks to the Law of 1988 and its subsequent laws. On adaptations, she points out: "Yes, there is, as far as possible, we try to manage it”.
In the matter of necessary adaptations, Sassaki (1997) reinforces that, for the company to become inclusive, one of several factors of its responsibility is the acquisition and/or facilitation in the acquisition of assisted technology products that facilitate the professional performance of employees. Still within the concept of inclusive enterprise, the author emphasizes that the company needs to be careful in terms of adapting the procedures, physical environment, work tools, human resources and administrative practices.
Regarding the role of the school in the orientation, when receiving the employee with disability, the interviewee informs: “I do not have this knowledge about what the guidelines were, but they did exist”.
In this regard, the Ilitic Institute (2012) presents as one of the objectives of the special schools: to provide the person with impaired with the conditions necessary for him to develop his potential so that he can interact with the social environment in which he lives.
As for the difficulties faced in the day to day, the interviewee reports:
“The greatest difficulties are adaptations, since they affect financial matters; everything depends; it's very bureaucratic; there are biddings and such; there are many difficulties in the public service to meet the needs of disabled people”.
Within this concept of changes and adaptations necessary for inclusion, Sassaki (1997) presents some problems created by society that make it difficult for people with impaired to enter the market, ranging from restrictive environments to discriminatory policies. The result of the interview may be related to the author's concept that it is the society’s responsibility to eliminate existing barriers and to make accessible everything that is necessary for the development of people with impaired.
As for the importance that the company gives to social inclusion, she reported the following:
“We have some training, but unfortunately this is when problems arise. They are very specific; there is nothing already pre-scheduled or planned to meet these types of situations, so when the problems appear, we go after them to be able to meet them”.
The result of the interview on the issue of social inclusion can be compared with the data of Aligreri et al. (2009), when dealing with socially responsible management, which encompasses the process of recruitment and selection, monitoring, reward and respect for diversities. For the authors, the way the company treats its employees directly interferes with performance and satisfaction.
The interviewee has been a director for 17 years and serves as a teacher in the school.
Regarding the placement in the labor market, the interviewee states the following:
“Our students with disabilities are all in a labor market process; however, when they arrive at school, they have a specific need regarding visual impairment, and as a consequence of this process, we also do, in parallel to these activities, accessible computing, as this is a tool that can be used both day-to-day and in the labor market. Thus, anyone can make use of it, as well as professional courses in the service network”.
In view of the technological reality that characterizes contemporaneity, visually impaired people also seek social integration through digital information and communication technologies. It is in this sense that the electronic devices act as auxiliaries for the adaptation of the person with impaired with the world. Through screen-reader software, among others, it becomes possible to interact with social networks and, consequently, with the digital world by means of the world-wide computer network. As a consequence, the limits of the social performance of these people are widened.
“Before we think about the job market, our disabled students need to have a good fit in society and in the family. They need to accept themselves as such and understand the limitations that this deficiency brings to their lives in the future and what would be the functions that they could develop, even if this impairment or this visual limitation is total or partial”.
Thus, digital technologies expand opportunities in the labor market and point to their integration in the development of skills essential to the demands advocated by the trade. In this sense, visual limitation would no longer be a barrier to access to professional opportunities, since it is considered to be one of the limitations of every human being.
“We do a fairly targeted job, when we also realize that students are based only on what the school offers. So, we also seek to give indications about what they can do and how they can develop these activities independently; so, in a way, we help them find that work as well”.
Regarding the role of the Institute in the placement in the labor market, the interviewee reports this:
“Well, we have been doing a part that we consider quite important, that is, when these people go to the job market, we must do a parallel follow-up to know the difficulties that they are facing in this company and how the place where they work is”.
This speech indicates that institutional support is fundamental for guaranteeing the working conditions and their full integration into professional activities.
“We seek to provide support, especially during the trial period. We ask, we call the company to know how they are, the situation, what they think and if they are able to carry out what was proposed. Because, once they are in the company, the firm will set the rules, the regulations and the function. If they fit that profile they have to deal with it. Therefore, we also try to follow, in parallel to the task received by that company, that is, to see if they are consistent with what they are supposed to do”.
The results of the interview highlight the importance of an institution that trains professionals, preparing people for available positions and providing support and guidance to companies that will receive it.
According to Tanaka (2003), in order to provide the entry of people with impaired into the labor market in a competitive way, it is necessary to adopt practices for this. In analyzing the results of the interview, it is understood that these practices are directly linked to the role of institutions, special schools and even companies.
Regarding the companies that seek help from the Institute to hire the people with impaired, the interviewee mentions the following:
“Therefore, we have been somewhat frustrated with this quest from the quota law in the labor market or from a public prosecutor's demand or from the company's own awareness. [...] We have been upset in some situations because we know that some students and some people who have already finished high school, who have already graduated, have the potential for more and are supported by a government benefit”.
Despite the evidences of the professional qualification of the visually impaired and the technological conditioning that level the competencies for the corporate activities and integrate communication and information as basic tools, the personal and family awareness represents a barrier to the insertion in the labor market.
“The public prosecutor's office has been carrying out actions to raise awareness of the companies and has even prepared training courses in partnership with the institutions, but we have seen a lot of resistance from both families and disabled people themselves”.
Even skilled, the visually impaired feel disadvantaged in situations of professional competition. The perception that competition, which implies adaptation in companies, puts them at a disadvantage still overcomes the perception of integration through technology and the development of professional skills, through specialized education institutions.
“Even because the cases of visually impaired people who do not have intellectual disability associated are able to analyze and evaluate this process of formal competitive market and end up justifying the fact that if they compete with the so-called normal people, they will be at a disadvantage. But we know it is not so. We know that it depends on their effort, just as it depends on everyone in their work area or on the role they play”.
The integration of personal interests and capacity building into the demands of the labor world seems to be central to the hiring of the visually impaired. The appropriate choice of specific areas in action may contribute positively to professional placement. However, the data collected in the interview coincide with the information of Lemes (2012), who reports that only half of the companies are able to comply with the Quota Law in the city of Londrina and one of the factors is that some people with impaired choose to receive the Continuous Benefit.
In this study, which aimed to evaluate the process of inclusion of the visually impaired in the labor market in the region of Londrina, it was possible to detect from the perspective of the employer that the law should be fulfilled and that, to the extent that there are people with impaired in the companies, the problems will be solved with the implementation of appropriate measures. For the people with impaired interviewed, this process has been given some caveats, as there is a lack of information on how to insert them into the companies.
When assessing the role of the special school in the insertion of visually impaired individuals in the labor market, it was verified that the support of the school is fundamental in the process of adaptation of blind individuals. This is due to the fact that this school is responsible for literacy in Braille, for orientation to mobility, for access to informatics, for psychological support, for family orientation and for insertion in the regular school. According to the studies carried out, and based on the interview with the educator of the school, it is emphasized that, once the person with impaired disabled man achieves his independence, that is, once he feels secure in his actions, he will be prepared for the job market.
The main facilitating factors for insertion in the job market described by the visually impaired were: the quota law, softwares that enable to use computer resources, and especially the willpower to seek a position and prove that he is capable to perform the designated function. The challenging aspects highlighted by them in the inclusion process were the lack of information and prejudice regarding the work capacity of the person with impaired.
Concerning the role of companies in the inclusion process, it was observed that firms seek to employ persons with disabilities in order to meet the quotas required by law and that, according to some studies, it has been found that sometimes companies are able to comply with the law and, as justification, say they do not find a qualified workforce. From the review of the literature, it is evident the need for adjustments in the process of inclusion of visually impaired people in the labor market so that there is a truly inclusive society.
Aligleri l., Aligleri l.A., Kruglianskas, I. (2009), “Práticas responsáveis na Gestão de pessoas”, em Aligleri l., Aligleri l.A., Kruglianskas, I. Gestão Socioambiental: Responsabilidade e Sustentabilidade do Negócio, Atlas, São Paulo, SP, pp.116-134.
Andrade, T. (2004), “Acessibilidade e tecnologias de apoio à inclusão de pessoas com necessidades especiais (PNE) no ensino Superior”, Aprender, Vol. 6, ed. 21, pp. 52-57.
Araujo, J.P., Schmidt, A. (2006), A inclusão de pessoas com necessidades especiais no trabalho: a visão de empresas e de instituições educacionais especiais na cidade de Curitiba. Revista Brasileira de Educação Especial, Vol. 12, No. 2, disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-65382006000200007&lng=en&nrm=iso. (acesso em 25 out. 2012), doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1413-65382006000200007.
Argenta, A.; Sá, E.D. (2010), “Atendimento Educacional Especializado de alunos cegos e com baixa visão”, Inclusão: Revista da Educação Especial, Vol. 5, No. 1, pp. 32-39.
Brasil (2011), Decreto nº 7.617, de 17 de novembro de 2011. Altera o Regulamento do Benefício de Prestação Continuada, aprovado pelo Decreto no 6.214, de 26 de setembro de 2007. Diário Oficial da União, 18 nov. 2011, disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2011-2014/2011/Decreto/D7617.htm (acesso em 19 mar. 2013).
Brasil. Lei nº 8.213, de 24 de julho de 1991. Dispõe sobre os Planos de Benefícios da Previdência Social e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União, 27 mai. 1991, disponível em: http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/L8213cons.htm (acesso em 5 out. 2012).
Chizzotti, A. (2001), Pesquisa em ciências humanas e sociais, 5. ed., Cortez, São Paulo, SP. Felix, L.F.F (2003), “O ciclo virtuoso do desenvolvimento responsável”, em Responsabilidade Social das Empresas: a contribuição das Universidades, 2. Ed., São Paulo: Pierópolis: Instituto Ethos, pp. 15-42.
Fonseca, V. Contratação de deficientes é tímida no Paraná. Folha de Londrina, nov. 2013, disponível em: http://www.folhadelondrina.com.br/empregos-e-concursos/contratacao-de-deficientes-e-timida-no-pr-863522.html (Acesso em: 27 nov. 2017).
Gomes, R. A. (1994), “Análise de dados em pesquisa qualitativa”, em: Deslandes, S.F., Neto, O.C., Minayo, M.C.S. (org), Vozes, Petrópolis, RJ, pp. 67-80.
Gonçalves, E., “O desafio do emprego”, disponível em: http://www.folhaweb.com.br/?id_folha=2-1--1876-20130516 (acesso em 15 de mai. 2013.)
Ilitic - “Instituto Londrinense de Instrução e Trabalho para o Cego”, disponível em: http://www.ilitc.org.br/index_vt.php#entidade (acesso em 7 de set. 2012).
Leite, G.C. (2004), Integração e Inclusão da pessoa com deficiência visual no mercado de trabalho: Um longo caminho de lutas e conquistas. Monografia de Pós-graduação em educação inclusiva, Universidade Candido Mendes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.
Lemes, F. (2012), Sobram vagas para deficientes em Londrina, Jornal de Londrina, Londrina. Disponível em:<http://fsindical.org.br/imprensa/londrina-pr-sobram-vagas-para-deficientes/ > (acesso em 18 mar. 2013).
Londrina. Lei nº 7.773, de 23 de julho de 1999. Torna obrigatória a adequação das edificações públicas, das suas áreas internas, do mobiliário e dos equipamentos urbanos visando a facilitar a locomoção dos portadores de deficiência sensorial visual e estabelece padrões e parâmetros de projeto para implantação dessas facilidades necessárias. Londrina, 23 jun. 1999, disponível em: < http://www2.londrina.pr.gov.br/jornaloficial/images/stories/jornalOficial/jornal_0166.pdf>. (Acesso em 09 mai. 2013).
Maciel, M.R.C. (2000), “Portadores de deficiência: a questão da inclusão social”, São Paulo em Perspectiva, Vol. 14, No. 2, pp. 51-56, disponível em:http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-88392000000200008 (acesso em 12 set. 2012).
Marconi, M.A. et Lakatos, E.M. (2005), Fundamentos de Metodologia científica, 5. ed., Atlas, São Paulo, SP.
Oliveira, L.R., Medeiros, R.M, Terra, PB, et al. (2012), Sustentabilidade: da evolução dos conceitos à implementação como estratégia nas organizações. Production, Vol. 22, n. 1, disponível em: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-65132012000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso. (acesso em 17 jun. 2014).
Sassaki, R.K. (1997), Inclusão: Construindo uma sociedade para todos, WVA, Rio de Janeiro, RJ. Soares, F. (2006), Uma Reflexão sobre o processo de inclusão: a perspectiva da pessoa com deficiência, dissertação de mestrado em economia doméstica, Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Viçosa, Minas Gerais.
Tanaka, E.D.O., Rodrigues, R.R.J. (2003), “Em busca de novas expectativas de trabalho para o portador de deficiência mental”, em Marquezine, M.C. et al. (Orgs.) Inclusão, Eduel, Londrina, pp. 323-330.
Tenório, F. G. (Org), (2006), Responsabilidade Social Empresarial: teoria e prática, 2. ed., FGV, Rio de Janeiro, RJ.
Tomazini, M.E.A. (1996), Trabalho e deficiência: uma questão a ser repensada, palestra ministrada no II Seminário Paranaense de Educação Especial. [Tema: Educação, Trabalho e Cidadania], Curitiba, 5-8 nov. 1996.
Uliana C.C. (2008), NVDA - Software Livre - Leitor de Tela para Windows, disponível em: http://www.bengalalegal.com/nvda#301 (acesso em 12 set. 2012).
Received: Apr 08, 2015.
Approved: Oct 11, 2017.
How to cite: Almeida, A.A.; Mazzafera, B.L.; Rolim, A.T. (2017), “The process of inclusion of people with visual impairment in the labor market”, Sistemas & Gestão, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 506-515, available from: http://www.revistasg.uff.br/index.php/sg/article/view/1236 (access day abbreviated month. year).